We are here to discuss in detail regarding the resource that is the most essential out of all the various resources that are there on Earth, this most essential resource is water almost all of us are already well aware of the fact that life has been possible on Earth only because there is water present on it so, it further becomes clear that if water will not be there life from Earth will also be gone. So, this makes it clear that water is essential for the purpose of life on Earth and therefore one needs to careful while using it and should not be wasting it.
But the scarcity of water is day by day becoming a major issue of concern especially in India, looking at some figures and facts such as the land area of India is 2.45 percent and India has 17 percent of the world population to look after and therefore it requires at least 4 percent of the water resources available on Earth. So, just by a glimpse of these facts and figures, one can easily make out the level of water scarcity that the country is facing.
These facts and figures do not stop here if we further look at the rapid urbanization and the rapid increase in the population then the predictions show that the need for water will be further increased by 20 percent in near future and thus the situation will be worse.
Some additional facts are as follows:
- Water scarcity is already faced by around 60 Crore people in India.
- Around 75 percent of the households are seen facing a scarcity of drinking water.
- 85 percent of the rural houses in India do not have piped water for them to use.
- In India, 70 percent of the water is contaminated.
- In the water quality index of 122 countries, India is seen at the 120th Rank.
- In the world per capita, water availability India ranks at 132.
So, to deal with the situations and the facts that we have discussed above the only way out is the treatment of the water that is available, along with the preservation of it. So, now that we know all regarding the situation of water in the country so we shall now further move to the discussion of the treatment techniques that should be used in India by the people for the proper treatment of the water in order to make it fit for reuse.
Talking regarding the most popular wastewater treatment technique we can say that mostly it is seen that people prefer using wastewater treatment plants in India. There are various types of plants that are available in India for being used for the treatment of various types of wastewater in the domestic as well as commercial setup.
The list of the various types of water treatment plants in India goes as follows:
- Effluent treatment plant: This type of wastewater treatment plant is used for the treatment of the water that contains dangerous industrial effluents, so one can say that this plant is mostly used at the industrial level.
- Sewage Treatment plant:This type of plant is used for the purpose of improving sanitation conditions at various commercial as well as some domestic setups, this plant mainly works on the treatment of the sewage so that it can be taken into use once again, the sewage sludge is mostly reused as fertilizer. The sewage treatment plants are mostly used at places where the municipal sewage system fails to reach.
- Ultrafiltration water treatment plant:The Ultrafiltration water treatment plant is mostly used for the process of cleaning and treating the drinking water, other than that, this plant is also used in combination with the other plants for more effective and proper treatment of the water. In this type of plant, it is the filters and the membranes that are taken into use for the purpose of water treatment. This membrane technology is considered one of the advanced techniques for the treatment of water.
So, this is all the important information related to the situation of water in India, and also all that one should know regarding the process of wastewater treatment in India.